Hypertension symptoms


Information about symptoms of hypertension, prevention and treatment of hypertension.
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Hypertonic illness (true, a Hypertension symptoms)


Hypertonic illness (true, a Hypertension symptoms) - disease which basic attribute is the increase of the arterial pressure which caused by infringement of regulation of a tone of vessels and work of heart and have been not connected with organic diseases of any bodies or systems of an organism. Symptomatic (secondary) arterial Hypertension symptoms are forms of increase of the arterial pressure, causally connected with the certain diseases of internal bodies (for example, diseases of kidneys, systems and so forth).

The world organization of public health services (CART) at the United Nations considers raised arterial pressure (irrespective of age) more than 140/90 mm hg Sizes up to 160/95 mm hg are considered "threatened"; persons with higher arterial pressure admit sick of hypertonic illness.
The reasons. The reasons of occurrence of hypertonic illness precisely are not known. Believe, that hypertonic illness develops owing to overstrain ЦНС, psychological at the persons having a pathological heredity (at the persons, suffering this disease, often close relatives also mark the raised arterial pressure).
Promoting factors. Infringements of function concern to such factors эндокринных желез, smoking, the use in food of the increased quantity of table salt, feature of a trade (demanding the big responsibility and enhanced attention), an insufficient dream, traumas and so forth
Distinguish three stages hypertonic illnesses (CART).
Stage I - the raised arterial pressure keeps changeably; often under influence of rest, at absence of adverse emotions it is independently normalized. Changes of internal bodies (in particular, increases left) it is not found out.
Stage II - arterial pressure is raised more stably, for its decrease application of medical products is required; the increase left naturally comes to light (it is the important attribute distinguishing II stage of illness from I of a stage).
Stage III - arterial pressure more often стойко is raised. Complications are possible: infringement of brain blood circulation, intimate insufficiency, a heart attack of a myocardium, much less often - почечная insufficiency. Arterial pressure after development of complications can be normalized, therefore the arterial Hypertension symptoms is not attribute III stages of illness.
Semiology. The basic complaint - a headache in connection with increase of arterial pressure. More often the headache appears in the mornings, is localized in occipital area and combined with sensation of " a heavy, stale head ». Patients can complain of the bad dream, the raised irritability, decrease in memory and intellectual working capacity. In due course there are complaints to pains in heart, fault, a short wind at physical activity. Some patients on a background of constantly raised arterial pressure have infringements of sight. However at a part of patients before development of complications of complaints can not be, in spite of the fact that the raised arterial pressure at them existed long time.
At inspection of the patient the raised arterial pressure, first of all, comes to light. In I stages of illness mark only the raised arterial pressure, changes in internal bodies are not present. In II stage, except for the raised arterial pressure, reveal increase left (at direct inspection of the patient, at radiological, an electrocardiogram or research). At this time can be marked and attributes of involving in pathological process of kidneys - in urine appear traces of fiber, individual эритроциты (develops kidneys). Changes of vessels of kidneys, on a background of on a regular basis spent medicamentous treatment develop much less often.
The atherosclerosis of coronary arteries develops in II stages also. It is shown by attacks of a stenocardia: of attacks compressing be a fan a brest, arising during physical activity and passing after the termination of loading (for example, walkings) or reception of nitroglycerine.
In III stage of hypertonic illness development of a heart attack of a myocardium, and also infringement of brain blood circulation (passing or with organic attributes in the form of парезов and paralyses) are possible. Probably sharp decrease in sight, down to its full loss.
In any stage of hypertonic illness there can come sharp increase of arterial pressure - the hypertonic crisis, accompanied an aggravation of symptoms of illness. As a result of various external influences (the stress, the physical or mental overstrain, an insufficient dream, the unlimited use of alcohol, smoking) arise a sharp headache, dizziness; there can be a nausea, frustration of sight. Hypertension symptoms Owing to arterial pressure of infringement of brain blood circulation arising simultaneously with increase there is an infringement of speech, frustration of movements. In heavy cases there is a haemorrhage in a brain - an insult. Sometimes during a hypertonic crisis the heart attack of a myocardium or sharp insufficiency - an attack of an intimate asthma develops.
Hypertonic illness can slowly proceed (the good-quality form). Sometimes the semiology develops quickly, down to occurrence of complications - the so-called malignant form. Such form (variant) proceeds usually 2-3 years and leads to death; sometimes it lasts some months. At the malignant form the arterial Hypertension symptoms develops quickly and becomes stable. Soon after the beginning of illness changes of vessels of an eye bottom (sharp narrowing of arteries of a retina, a haemorrhage) come to light a hypertrophy left. Can quickly develop with the advent of attributes insufficiency (this variant of current of a malignant Hypertension symptoms is marked less often, than a variant with Primary defeat of heart or vessels of a brain).
Treatment. In an initial stage of illness in a basis of treatment creation of optimum working conditions and rest, purpose of sedative means (Bekhterev's mixture, preparations and also preparations of type lays. At a bad dream somnolents are recommended. For such patients there will be correct following tactics: better to the patient to give somnolent that it has well slept, than in the name of a false message « to not get used to medicines » nothing to give and the patient it will be bad to sleep, and arterial pressure will remain raised. These principles remain effective and for II and III stages of illness. Work in a night shift, the work connected with influence of noise, vibration, an excessive pressure of attention as all this promotes increase of arterial pressure is forbidden to patients.
Essential value has an eutrophy - power value peep should not exceed daily need (for patients with superfluous weight of a body it should be below), restriction of table salt up to 5-8 г/сут is obligatory. The Primary goal at treatment of patients - to pick up a preparation providing a normal level of arterial pressure. The aspiration to achieve normal (or nearly so normal) a level of arterial pressure is correct, as promotes the prevention of brain complications (an insult, dynamic infringement of brain blood circulation) and developments vessels of kidneys.
There is a plenty (reducing the raised arterial pressure) means. These are the preparations influencing nervous receptors of vessels and, the preparations reducing the maintenance of biologically active substances - adrenaline and - in and receptors of vessels (, clonidine,). Diuretic preparations (Hypertension symptoms), promoting allocation from an organism of salts of sodium and water, also cause decrease in arterial pressure. action render so-called peripheral - means of the various mechanism of action, but having the final effect expansion (Hypertension symptoms). The choice of a medical product is carried out by the doctor.
Now widely use the so-called combined therapy: simultaneously appoint some preparations with the various mechanism of action. Such method of treatment allows to manage considerably their smaller dozes than when give one preparation. Preparations are recommended to be accepted constantly. The break is possible only during holiday of the patient or during this period the doze of a preparation can be reduced. Treatment should be spent under the control of arterial pressure. There is no once and for all established doze of a preparation. Size of a doze, and what doze of a preparation should be accepted to the patient, solve in each case individually, in view of size of arterial pressure. In this occasion of the patient should be well instructed by the doctor.
The patient, suffering hypertonic illness, houses usually treat. Hospitalize only in the certain cases: if necessary to pick up a new combination of medical products (in case earlier applied have ceased to be effective), for specification of the diagnosis. Duration of stay in a hospital cannot be strictly fixed.
Serious complication of hypertonic illness - a hypertonic crisis - demands special treatment which should be begun as soon as possible. Urgent actions are directed on decrease in sharply raised arterial pressure, improvement of blood circulation in a brain, kidneys and other bodies. To the patient create physical and a peace of mind, it should observe a confinement to bed with the raised position of a head, access of fresh air is provided. In easy cases effective enough there are so-called distracting procedures: mustard plasters on a nape, muscles, hot (with addition горчицы) foot baths, a cold to a head. The medical personnel spends these actions at a crisis, both in a hospital, and in house conditions. Moreover, at occurrence in the patient of complaints, characteristic for a crisis, it is necessary to do after measurement of arterial pressure all the above-stated actions and if simultaneously there are pains of compressing character in the field of heart, it is necessary to register an electrocardiogram as on a background of a crisis the sharp heart attack of a myocardium can develop.
If the patient is raised, give a sedative (Hypertension symptoms).
For decrease in arterial pressure in the beginning give a tablet of clonidine under language (especially if the crisis develops at the elderly person). Sometimes it is enough to give a diuretic preparation. If the listed measures appear insufficient or from the very beginning the crisis is sharply expressed, intravenously enter 0,5 % a solution (6-10 ml) about 10-15 ml a solution of sodium of chloride (for convenience of intravenous introduction). At intravenous introduction дибазола arterial pressure decreases through 15-20 mines, and the effect is kept during 2-3 ч. Action дибазола can be strengthened by simultaneous purpose inside of 40 mg. Besides these preparations, for knocking over of a hypertonic crisis enter also intramuscularly clonidine - 0,5 1,0 ml of 0,01 % of a solution or intravenously same doze together with 10-15 ml изотонического a solution of sodium of chloride. After introductions of clonidine, in order to prevent sharp falling arterial pressure of the patient should be in bed during 2 ч.
At the crisises proceeding hard, and also if arterial pressure badly decreases from application specified above preparations, to destination the doctor use (0,5-1,0 ml of a solution of 5 % intramuscularly or together with 20 ml a solution of sodium of chloride intravenously). Intravenously it is necessary to enter slowly (during 7-10 mines) with the continuous control over arterial pressure. Instead of it is possible to use and others, for example (1 ml of 2,5 % of a solution intramuscularly or hypodermically). Introduction Hypertension symptoms can be accompanied by significant falling of arterial pressure with development of a collapse. Therefore the patient should after introduction of a preparation 2-3 ч be in bed in horizontal position and through everyone 15-20 mines to it it is necessary to measure arterial pressure. If the collapse nevertheless will arise, it is necessary to lift legs of the patient, to enter кордиамин (2 ml hypodermically) or мезатон (1 ml of a solution of 1 % intramuscularly).
The hypertonic crisis can be accompanied by the phenomena of a hypostasis of lungs. Then to destination the doctor sometimes resort to (200-300 ml) with the subsequent intravenous introduction Ml of 0,06 % of a solution) in 20 ml of 40 % of a solution of glucose or a solution of sodium of chloride. To elderly patients with attributes of an atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain are not recommended, instead of them it is better to use medical bloodsuckers on area  shoots (on 4 from each party). Besides intimate Hypertension symptoms, at a developing hypostasis of lungs also appoint diuretic means (inside 40-80 mg).
At the expressed psychomotor excitation of the patient it is necessary to apply small tranquilizers (Hypertension symptoms), and also a Dimedrol (2 ml of a solution of 1 %) or (2 ml of a solution of 2 %). If the hypertonic crisis has developed houses after rendering the first pre-medical help of the patient it is necessary to hospitalize in a hospital. Transportation is carried out in a prone position on a stretcher accompanied by the doctor or the medical assistant. In a hospital the further medicamentous therapy in view of character of a hypertonic crisis, the mechanism of its development and accompanying complications is spent.
The forecast. At low increase of arterial pressure, absence of crisises the forecast quite favorable, sick long time keeps work capacity. The forecast essentially worsens at the high arterial pressure, badly giving in to decrease, at frequent hypertonic crisises, occurrence of attacks of a stenocardia.
Preventive maintenance. Primary preventive maintenance consists in influence on the factors promoting development of hypertonic illness. Prohibition of smoking, regulation of a mode of work and rest, a sufficient dream, restriction in food of table salt have essential value. The same actions should be spent and at the developed picture of hypertonic illness. Patients are put in a district clinic on the account. Secondary preventive maintenance consists in aspiration to support arterial pressure upon sizes normal or close to norm that is reached by carrying out regular therapies.

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