Hypertension symptoms and diagnostics of an arterial hypertension.
Principal cause of late diagnostics of a Hypertension symptoms its this long asymptomatic current. In most cases the diagnosis of a hypertension is established after casual measurement of pressure or during a hypertonic crisis during which symptoms of illness prove in a greater measure. For an exact establishment of the diagnosis and calculation of risk of a hypertension it is necessary to lead additional inspections. This clause is devoted to symptoms and attributes of a hypertension, and also the scheme of diagnostics of a hypertension.
The basic problem of a hypertension it that in most cases it proceeds practically . As a whole, symptoms of a hypertension depend on the form and a stage of development of illness. Some forms of clinical development of a hypertension (an arterial hypertensia, hypertonic illness) are known:
Forms of clinical development of an arterial
Hypertension symptoms is characterized by periodic increases of arterial pressure. Such increase lasts some hours or day, and then parameters of arterial pressure again decrease to normal amounts without treatment. Usually it is the initial form of development of a hypertension.
Labile arterial hypertension at which increase of arterial pressure comes periodically, as well as at ΡΡΠ°Π½Π·ΠΈΡΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ to the form, however for returning pressure to normal parameters treatment is necessary.
Stable arterial Hypertension symptoms at which increase of arterial pressure stable and significant, decrease pressure demands serious treatment.
The malignant arterial hypertension is characterized by very high increase of arterial pressure (especially due to Π΄ΠΈΠ°ΡΡΠΎΠ»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ pressure), immunity to treatment and fast approach of heavy complications.
ΠΡΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ current of an arterial hypertension is characterized by periodic occurrence Π³ΠΈΠΏΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½Π·ΠΈΠ²Π½ΡΡ crisises (on a background of the lowered, normal or insignificant raised arterial pressure).
Stages of an arterial Hypertension symptoms:
As well as any other illness, in the development a hypertension passes the certain stages. As a rule, transition to a new stage of illness means deterioration of the forecast of illness and is accompanied by deterioration of a condition of the patient. In case of hypertonic illness, ΡΡΠ°Π΄ΠΈΠ°Π»ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΡ it is spent depending on a degree of defeat of bodies of targets. In development of an arterial hypertension it is distinguished three stages:
Stage of illness
The description of a stage of illness
I the Stage
Arterial pressure is raised slightly, and hypertonic crisises happen seldom. The increase in borders of heart is defined only by means of special methods of diagnostics (ultrasonic, an electrocardiogram), changes in bodies targets are absent
Arterial pressure raised, astable. The increase in borders of heart becomes ΠΎΡΡΡΠΈΠΌΡΠΌ, hypertonic crisises become more frequent. There are first attributes of defeat of heart, kidneys, a brain.
Arterial pressure is strongly raised. Attributes of defeat of bodies of targets are obvious. There are intimate and ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ½Π°Ρinsufficiency, infringements of sight, neurologic symptoms.
Symptoms of an arterial hypertension depend on the form of current of illness and from a stage of a hypertension (a degree of infringement of activity of bodies of targets).
In most cases, as we already spoke above, initial stages of hypertonic illness proceed Π±Π΅ΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΠ½ΠΎ. The first symptoms of illness appear only at occurrence of complications of this illness - defeat of bodies of targets.
The first heart reacts to a hypertension. For creation of high arterial pressure heart should pump over blood in the strengthened mode, therefore first attribute of a hypertension is the thickening ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΠΎΠΊ the left half of heart (more precisely left ΠΆΠ΅Π»ΡΠ΄ΠΎΡΠΊΠ°) which is responsible ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΊΠ°ΡΠΈΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ blood on the big circle of blood circulation. Further there are changes of blood vessels and frustration of blood supply of internal bodies. At sick of a hypertension it is shown by such symptoms as passing headaches, dizzinesses, passing frustration of sight, a short wind, palpitation, a pain in the field of heart. Especially expressed these symptoms happen during Π³ΠΈΠΏΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½Π·ΠΈΠ²Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ a crisis (sharp increase of arterial pressure).
The subsequent symptoms of an arterial hypertension are connected with accrueing infringements of work of bodies of targets: ischemic illness of heart and intimate insufficiency (pains in the field of heart accept character as at a stenocardia, the short wind accrues) gradually develops, accrues ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ½Π°Ρ insufficiency (there are hypostases, allocation raises wet), appear stable infringements of sight (damage of a retina of eyes), symptoms Π³ΠΈΠΏΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½Π·ΠΈΠ²Π½ΠΎΠΉ encephalopathies (headaches, dizzinesses) accrue.
However even at presence of these symptoms of patients seldom attach to their due significance and postpone visit to the doctor.
Diagnostics of an arterial Hypertension symptoms
The first stage of diagnostics of an arterial hypertension this measurement of arterial pressure. For acknowledgement of the diagnosis of an arterial hypertensia it is necessary to register high figures of arterial pressure on extreme ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π΅ in three independent measurements.
At definition of high figures of arterial pressure process of diagnostics passes to a following stage:
Gathering of the anamnesis and the general survey of the patient
Gathering of the anamnesis (interrogation of the patient) is of great importance in complex diagnostics of an arterial Hypertension symptoms as gives to the doctor the information on development of illness, on presence at the patient of other diseases or hereditary ΠΎΡΡΠ³ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ.
During interrogation of the patient the doctor specifies symptoms of illness (their character, periodicity, interrelation with other phenomena), development of illness from the moment of occurrence of the first symptoms and till the moment of the reference to the doctor as the doctor specifies presence at the patient of bad habits, acquaints with features of a way of life of the patient, with the case record and lives of the patient. On reception at the doctor it is important to mention presence of a hypertension at relatives (for example, at parents), and also to tell about the attempts of treatment of a hypertension undertaken earlier.
The general survey of the patient allows the doctor to estimate a condition of some bodies which most often suffer at an arterial hypertension (that the doctor defines risk of a hypertension). Attributes of defeat of a brain are various infringements of movements and sensitivity, attributes of defeat of a retina of eyes - proof decrease in sight, attributes of defeat of heart - infringement of an intimate rhythm, expansion of borders of heart, increase in the sizes of a liver, revealing of rattles in lungs and hypostases on legs, attributes of defeat of arteries of finitenesses - a pain arising in legs (in ΠΈΠΊΡΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΆΠ½ΡΡ muscles) at walking and calming down at the termination of walking.
The following stage of diagnostics of an arterial hypertension is laboratory methods of research. The minimum of laboratory analyses necessary for an assessment of works of internal bodies (and for an estimation of risk) at a Hypertension symptoms includes:
· The General analysis of blood and urine - allows to estimate a condition of system of blood and work of kidneys;
· Glucose in blood - allows to establish or deny presence of a diabetes;
· The Biochemical analysis of blood - gives the valuable information concerning work of kidneys, a liver, concentration of various fractions of fats and cholesterol in blood;
· The Electrocardiogram (electrocardiogram) - informs the information on work of heart;
· Ultrasonic research of internal bodies - gives the information concerning a condition of internal bodies;
· Research of an eye bottom - shows a condition of blood vessels of a retina.
At presence of suspicion on a secondary (symptomatic) arterial hypertension carry out additional researches for diagnostics of illnesses which can lead to increase of arterial pressure.
The correct establishment of the diagnosis at hypertonic illness includes definition of a degree of an arterial hypertension, a stage of illness, the form of current of a hypertension, revealing of complications and risk of illness.
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